# Hydrodynamic Analogy. An efficient method to solve several Physics problems

Autor: Corneliu Berbente | Marius Brebenel | Sorin Berbente

Editura: Bibliotheca Targoviste

Seria: Universitaria-Tehnica

Format: 17x24 cm

Nr. pagini: 182

Coperta: brosata

ISBN: 978-606-772-696-1

Anul aparitiei: 2023

CONTENTS

General introduction / 6

1. A physical - geometrical model of an early Universe / 8

2. A hydrodynamical model for gravity / 21

3. Some consequences of a hydrodynamical model for gravity / 31

4. A possible Universe in pulsation by using a hydrodynamical model for gravity / 41

5. Aspects on the thermodynamics of early Universe / 53

6. Possible simple structures of the Universe to include General Relativity effects / 64

7. Non-explosive reversible transformations matter-energy via gravity in Universe / 75

8. An extension of Newton gravity formula considering the Universe expansion effects / 84

9. An interpretation of the “black energy” in Universe by using a hydrodynamical analogy with Newton gravity / 94

10. A possible way of unification of the gravity (Newton) and electric (Coulomb) forces by using a hydrodynamic analogy / 99

11. A possible way of unification of the gravity, Coulomb and Lorenz (electromagnetic) interactions by using a hydrodynamic analogy / 109

12. A possible way of unification of the electrostatic (Coulomb) and nuclear (Yukawa) interactions by using a hydrodynamic analogy / 119

13. Light, gravity, expansion, relativity, black holes and black energy - Considerations at the scale of Universe / 126

14. A two steps outline of an expanding Universe: the structuring by division and the hydrodynamic type of gravity / 137

15. A comparative study of some models regarding the creation of the early Universe / 148

16. A possible new definition of the fundamental measure units / 158

17. A possible way to unify four types of interactions: gravitational, electromagnetic, nuclear and electroweak interactions by using a hydrodynamic analogy / 164

18. A possible evolution of black holes by using a hydrodynamic analogy / 173

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

This book is a collection of papers published by authors, related to the so-called Hydrodynamic Analogy (HDA) and the consequences of this model on the laws of Physics and the theory of the Universe.

In the texts of the presented published papers, the authors dare to come up with some new hypotheses, consistent with the currently accepted laws of Physics and astronomical observations. An example of such a hypothesis is related to the total energy of Universe which, in the authors` view, is constant and has a well-determined value, yet difficult to measure.

Another important original element introduced by the authors in connection to the Hydrodynamic Analogy is the HD-graviton, a photon-like particle with a wavelength of the order of the Universe`s radius. HD-gravitons are introduced into a theory of gravity, using the hydrodynamic analogy between sources in an incompressible fluid and gravitational attraction. HD-gravitons have also proven useful in obtaining a model for dark energy in Universe.

When applying the Hydrodynamic Analogy, a new principle of equivalence was formulated: for any type of force (gravity, Coulomb, Lorenz, Yukawa, weak interactions) there exists an equivalent hydrodynamic force. A unique particle, the HD-graviton, is used to carry the interaction.

Another important result obtained by the authors and discussed in one of the published papers shown in this book is the dependence of the coefficient of universal attraction (usually considered constant) on the age of the Universe. Based on this result, a new way of definition of the fundamental measure units was proposed.

The book presents the published papers in a chronological order, each paper having as references the previously published papers.

The contents of the book can be broken down in three parts, as it is shown below.

The first part is dedicated to a possible determination of the total energy of Universe. This energy is important as fundamental constant. Such fundamental constants can be used to definition of physical units, For example, is given in joule. If one denots by [ ] the value of (dimensionless) the ratio /[ ] gives the definition of joule. Similarly, has the dimension of time and can be used to define the second.

Others fundamental constants are, for example, the neutron mass, the electric charge of electron (Coulomb), and so on.

The second part of collection deals with the introduction of HDA, using gravity. To this aim the hydrodynamic sources in incompressible flow are used. The particle carrying the interaction is so called HD-graviton., a photon like particle, having the wave length of the order of the Universe radius at curent time (the age of Universe).

The third part is dedicated to the analysis of a possible way of unifying the gravity (Newton) and the other fundamental interactions by using the HDA model.

This book addresses to all those attracted by the study of Physics in general and of the Universe and its evolution in particular, especially physicists, engineers, cosmologists, mathematicians, students and teachers of faculties with a prevailing scientific and technical profile.

Authors, March 2023

ABOUT THE AUTHORS

Prof. Em. Corneliu Berbente, PhD has a high expertise in the fields of Aerodynamics, Fluid Mechanics, Gas Dynamics and Applied Mathematics for Engineers, being author of several technical books and articles. Professor at Univ. Politehnica of Bucharest, Romania. Full Member of the Academy of Technical Sciences of Romania.

Marius Brebenel, PhD has a high expertise in the fields of Aerodynamics, Fluid Mechanics, Gas Dynamics and Applied Mathematics for Engineers, being author of several technical books and articles. Lecturer at Univ. Politehnica of Bucharest, Romania. Associate Member of the Academy of Technical Sciences of Romania.

Sorin Berbente, PhD is senior researcher at the National Institute for Aerospace Research „Elie Carafoli”, specialist in the fields of System Dynamics and Numerical Methods. He is author of several technical papers in the mentioned fields. Lecturer at Univ. Politehnica of Bucharest, Romania.